Green hydrogen as an energy carrier or an energy storage option can be valorised in the energy sector in different ways, not only limited to the power sector.
The main different valorisation routes are:
- Power-to-Power (P2P): hydrogen can be used to produce electricity in a fuel cell or in a conventional gas turbine;
- Power-to-Gas (P2G): under certain conditions green hydrogen can be directly injected into the natural gas infrastructure. Also, it can be converted to biomethane making use of carbon dioxide (CO2) ;
- Power-to-Mobility (P2M): Hydrogen can be used in the mobility sector in hydrogen cars or buses (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles). Green hydrogen can also be used in the mobility sector for the production of biomethanol (used as a blend with traditional fuels), biomethane (for CNG cars) and low carbon footprint fuels from the traditional refinery process;
- Power-to-Chemicals (P2C): hydrogen is an important industrial gas which can be used for the production of ammonia, in the petrochemical industry and/or the food industry. Green hydrogen can be used here as a way to decarbonize the chemical sector and make the best use of the renewable energy potential.